From cardiology to imperial mythology: a selection inspired by graduate research

What do cardiology, the Armenian language, early saints’ lives and Matthew Arnold have in common? They are some of the current research topics which Balliol’s graduates challenged library staff to find in the collections in advance of their visit to our Historic Collections Centre last week.

Here are some of the research topics with the material that staff picked to match. It’s an amazing selection.

 

Research interest:

The Middle East and British imperial rule

Sketch of 'A Persian woman of low rank & her children'

Sketches made in Persia, 1809-1815, by James Justinian Morier, diplomat and novelist. Balliol preserves the letters and papers of five generations of James’ family of traders and diplomats in the Middle East.

[Morier Papers N3.4]

Page from a letter to Louis du Pan Mallet from Blanche Ovey, dated Athens, 19 November 1914.

‘I wish I could tell you half the thrilling things that happened after you left…’

Letter to Louis du Pan Mallet, British Ambassador at Constantinople (1913-1914) from Blanche Ovey, wife of William Ovey, member of Embassy staff in Constantinople, dated Athens, 19 November 1914. It describes the departure of Embassy staff and British subjects from Constantinople after the outbreak of World War I. Ovey makes frequent reference to Henry Morgenthau, the American Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, and Talaat Pasha, Ottoman Minister of Finance at the time.

[Mallet Papers IV 11.10]

 

Research interest:

Cardiology or cardiovascular medicine

Engraved plate (table 1) showing diagrams of the heart

Richard Lower’s Tractatus de Corde, London, 1669, is an extension of William Harvey’s ground breaking work on blood circulation, De Motu Cordis [Balliol’s copy: 820 c 12]. Lower was part of an Oxford based group performing laboratory experiments during the interregnum. His work included the first successful blood transfusion, between two dogs. His book also documents his observation of the differences in colour between arterial and venous blood and his hypothesis that this was due to its interaction with air supplied by the lungs.

[820 b 15]

 

Research interest:

Saints’ lives 600-1100 

Detail from title page of Arch b 7 4 showing woodcut images of saints

This book of saints’ lives was originally written by 14th-century Venetian, Petrus de Natalibus. This early printed version was made in Paris in 1514, less than 100 years after the birth of European printing. It is highly illustrated with woodcuts some of which have been reused many times for different saints, others, like the martyrdom of Saint Agatha, were less transferable.

Final page and end papers of Arch b 7 4 showing graffiti and recycled printed waste

The final pages reveal contemporary graffiti and a page from an older book recycled by the binder to make the end papers.

[Arch B 7 4]

 

Research interest:

Matthew Arnold (Balliol 1841) & Arnold Toynbee (Balliol 1875)

Letter from Arnold Toynbee to his nurse from Margate, 31 October 1876

This collection of letters from Arnold Toynbee to his family include quite a few to his childhood nurse Mrs Sheppard. The one on display is from a trip Toynbee made to Margate. It was donated by Arnold’s niece Margaret Toynbee in 1982. Arnold Toynbee was a social reformer and political economist who was committed to improving working class conditions. After gaining his MA he stayed on at Balliol as lecturer in Economic history from 1878-1882. Although only 30 when he died, Toynbee’s liberal reformist ideas inspired many others. Toynbee Hall, the site of the first university settlement which encouraged closer relations between the working classes and those educated at the universities, was named in his honour and still stands at Whitechapel in London.

[Toynbee Papers 1]

Page from an exercise book belonging to the Arnold family

This Brown leather-covered notebook stamped in gilt on front cover, “Rugby School. Fifth Form. 1837”, begins with a Latin prose essay for which 14-year-old Matthew Arnold won first prize at Rugby school in 1837. A few pages in, however, it erupts into a visual feast of fairy tales and domestic scenes of games and dancing. The drawings were contributed mostly by Matthew’s sister Frances and his daughter Eleanor from 1846-1879. On display is a riddle accompanied by a helpful visual aid, and a joke: Why is an ironmonger the most likely person to make the alphabet quarrel? Because he can make A pokeR & shoveL.

Balliol’s Historic Collection Centre houses the personal papers of many of the Arnold Family including Matthew’s brother Tom and his niece the celebrated author and social reformer Mary Augusts Ward.

[Arnold Family Papers. Wode 1.I.3]

 

Research interest:

Medical imaging, ultrasound, inspection of the human body

Engraving showing a tumour in the stomach

A Series of Engravings, Accompanied with Explanations, which are Intended to Illustrate the Morbid Anatomy, London, 1812 is considered the first systematic study of pathology. It is illustrated with detailed engravings of problems inside the body. An inscription in the front of the book explains that the author, Matthew Ballie (Balliol 1779) gave ‘the whole of his most valuable collection of Anatomical Preparations to the College, and £600 for the preservation of the same; and this too, (after the example of the illustrious Harvey) in his life time’.  The Anatomical Preparations were passed on to another institution but Ballie’s portrait still hangs in Balliol’s Library Reading Room.

[615 e 11]

 

Research interest:

Biochemistry and/or cancer

Engraving of an operation to remove cancer

A Compleat Treatise of Preternatural Tumours by John Browne, London, 1678, depicts early modern operations to remove cancers. The author was surgeon-in-ordinary to Charles II and a surgeon at St Thomas’s Hospital in London.

[300 i 11 (1)]

 

Research interest:

Imperial and colonial narrative building (histories, philosophies, mythologies)

Title page and engraved portrait of Tipu Sultan

A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun by Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Beatson, late Aide-de-Camp to the Marquis Wellesley, London, 1800. Tipu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore, clashed with the British East India Company. A series of wars ended in his death whilst defending his fort of Seringapatam in May 1799. This contemporary narrative, written by a soldier on the winning side, looks like it has been rushed through the printing press with the text askew in places.

[2050 c 1]

 

Research interest:

Armenian language manuscripts or early printed books

A handwritten Armenian compilation of prayers and teachings, the Treasury of Truth. The binding, complete with metal clasps to hold they book shut, looks early modern but this manuscript is nineteenth-century.

[MS 375]

arch-c-10-10-p1-1

An early printed Psalms of David in Armenian that belonged to a 17th-century Fellow of Balliol, Nicholas Crouch. We catalogued the rest of Crouch’s library during a Wellcome Trust funded project in 2016-17 but staff did not have the language specialism to catalogue this. We still don’t know exactly when or where it was printed.

[Arch c 10 10]

 

Research interest:

Woman Philosophers (Mary Astell & Catharine Macaulay) in 17th and 18th century Britain and the relationship between moral and political philosophy

Title page for An Impartial Enquiry into the Causes of Rebellion and Civil War in the Kingdom, London, 1704

An Impartial Enquiry into the Causes of Rebellion and Civil War in this Kingdom: In an Examination of Dr. Kennett’s Eermon, Jan. 31. 1703/4. And Vindication of the Royal Martyr by Mary Astell, London, 1704, deplores the execution of Charles I. As a Tory, Astell believed in the necessity of a citizen’s absolute obedience to a monarch.

[905 i 10 (9)]

Title page of Observations on the Reflections of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke on the Revolution in France, London, 1790

Observations on the Reflections of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, on the Revolution in France: in a letter to the Right Hon. the Earl of Stanhope by Catharine Macaulay, London, 1790 is an impassioned republican response to Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France. This publication gave rise to a correspondence and mutual admiration with Mary Wollstonecraft and in Balliol’s volume, Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Men is bound next to Macaulay’s work.

[60 h 19 (01)]

 

Research interest:

Infections, microbiology, penicillin

Illustration from Anatomia seu Interiora Rerum

Anatomia seu Interiora Rerum : cum animatarum tum inanimatarum, ope & beneficio exquisitissimorum microscopiorum detecta… by Antonio à Leeuwenhoek, Paris, 1687. The largely self-taught author was a pioneer of microbiology. He used single-lensed microscopes of his own design to experiment with microbes, which he originally referred to as ‘animacules’ or tiny animals. He was also the first to document microscopic observations of muscles fibres, bacteria, spermatozoa, red blood cells and blood flow in capillaries.

[825 d 10]

 

Research interest:

Electrical power grids (specifically power electronic converters, power management, DC microgrids, solar power)

Folding plate with diagram to help sailors determine latitude

De Magnete by William Gilbert, London, 1600, coined the word electricitas (derived from the Greek word for amber) and expanded the range of electric and electrostatic experiments.

[470 d 14]

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